Internet as Learning Resources

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One of the most prevalent changes happening in the 21st century is perhaps in access to information in terms of its quantity and quality. Before the spread of internet technology in 1970s, access to information was relatively limited, homogeneous and centralized. For example, a few decades ago students were still much dependent on library for information. Most of the materials were accessed in printed forms, e.g. books, magazines, etc. In order to find information, they had to either buy the books or borrow books from library. In addition, the variations of the resources were quite limited

Information Literacy for English Language Learners

As highlighted in The P21 Framework for 21st Century Learning [1], learners of 21st century should master a set of competencies called Information Literacy. This literacy is divided into several competencies explained briefly below: ​

A. Access and Evaluate Information

The first group of competencies that learners should master is related to accessing and evaluating information that they gather. This is further divided into two sub skills:

  1. Access information efficiently (time) and effectively (source)
  2. Evaluate information critically and competently

B. Use and Manage Information

  1. Use information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand
  2. Manage the flow of information from a wide variety of sources

C. Apply a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information

Searching Skills

Types of Search Engine

Searching has been the core and probably the most vital part of internet world. One of the biggest part of using the internet is searching for information from the internet. While it is possible to access specific information directly from a website (i.e. by typing the URL in your browser), perhaps many people find it more convenient to find the information that they want by searching. It is very interesting that in the beginning of the world wide web, searching used a different protocol (called Gopher) from world wide web protocol. However, currently searching has been an integrated part of

How to Use Search Engine Effectively: Some Tips


  1. Frameworks & Resources. Battelle For Kids. (2019). Retrieved October 14, 2021, from
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